The largest organ of the body in terms of surface area and weight, covers all the external surface of the body. Acts as protective barrier to the environment, allowing and limiting the inward and outward passage of water, electrolytes and various substances.



Hyperpigmentation is a concentrated and usually localized increase in the skin’s natural colour. These dark spots are mainly located on the face, neckline and back of the hands and are usually harmless


Skin’s natural colour is due to the pigment melanin produced by melanocytes, the cells present in the skin. Hyperpigmentation is due to over production of melanin by melanocytes. This over production is mainly caused by UV light exposure which induces inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in keratinocytes. As a result, mediators are released which causes excessive melanin production by stimulation of melanocytes and melanin is deposited in keratinocytes to protect the skin from over exposure causing solar lentigines or seasonal spots called Freckles.
Other causes of hyperpigmentation are enviromental factors like Smoke: Cigarette, Auto Emission and Factory Smoke, Hormonal changes (Melasma)such as those in Aging, Pregnancy, Birth Control Pills, Post-menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy and Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in acne prone skin.


  • Exposure to UV Rays
  • Melanin deposition in cells
  • Melanin production
  • Oxidant and Inflammatory activity


Skin ageing is a biochemical process that principally takes place in the lower epidermis and in the dermis. It can be intrinsic or chronological ageing and extrinsic or environmental ageing.

Various environmental factors ,UV-irradiation, air pollution, smoking, poor diet, alcohol, dry weather and stress are responsible for extrinsic ageing. Among them UV-irradiation is the most fundamental one, as it can damage skin to such an extent, that makes it seem prematurely aged (photoageing). Photoageing is the main cause of wrinkles.

Ageing is the consequence of lower production and increased breakdown of the proteins, collagen and elastin, that impart firmness and elasticity to the skin. Protein glycation, a non-enzymatic reaction of proteins( collagen and elastin), results in cross-linked proteins called AGE (Advanced Glycation End-products), responsible for deterioration of the existing collagen and elastin .UV radiations accelerates normal ageing by promoting glycation through oxidative stress.

Major contributing mechanism in ageing is the Reactive oxygen species(ROS), initiating and activating a complex cascade of biochemical reactions in human skin, thus interfering with the synthesis of dermal collagen.


Acne is most common dermatologic disorder and effects 80% of people between the age of 11 to 30years. Although acne is usually thought of as a condition of adolesence, 8% of the 25-to 34-year and 3% of the 34-to 44-year age group effected.

Though not life threatening, acne can have severe psychosocial consequences leading to poor self-esteem, social isolation, and depression

Acne is a disorder resulting from the action of hormones and other substances on skin’s Oil Glands(sebaceous glands) and Hair Follicles.

Normally, Sebum(oil) produced by sebaceous glands seeps onto skin surface through opening of follicle, lubricates the skin to protect it and hair follicles produce keratinocytes at normal rate.
In acne , hypersecreation of sebum(oil) and overproduction of keratinocytes by hair follicles blocks the pores. Sebum gets trapped which leads to formation of closed Comedo. Bacteria like Propionibacterium acnes(P.acnes) that normally live on skin grow in plugged follicle and causes inflammation. When the wall of plugged follicles break down, it spills everything into nearby skin including sebum, shed skin cells and bacteria-leading to lesions or pimples which may further lead to post-inflammatory pigmentation.

Factors causing acne include hormones like testosterone, spicy food, fat diet, mensturation and mental stress.


  • Sebum production
  • Inflammation
  • Infection